The easiest way to identify a through hole 10k resistor is by looking at the color bands on it. Looking at the chart below you can see that the 1st band plus the 2nd band times the 3rd band will tell you what the value of the resistor is with a 4th band indicating the tolerance. For a 10k resistor this can be represented as
The 5 band through hole resistor is just like the 4 band version except there is a 3rd digit indicated by the 3rd band allowing for more precision. Looking at the chart below you can see that the 1st band, 2nd band, and 3rd band are used to indicate the resistor value multiplied by the 4th band value and lastly using the 5th band to indicating the tolerance. For a 10k resistor this can be represented as
If the resistor is instead a surface mount package (most common in newer pcb circuits) than you can read the code printed on the device to see if it is a 10k resistor.
A common format for SMD resistors where digit one and digit two are multiplied by the number of zeros indicated by the 3rd digit.
For resistances less than 10Ω an R is used in the 2nd digit
Ex: 1R5 = 1.5Ω resistor
Similar to the 3 digit version except there is an additional digit of precision.
For resistances less than 100Ω an R is used to indicate the decimal point
Ex: 19R5 = 19.5Ω resistor
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